Seeking the best biological control solutions against armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae): An innovative approach to protect Ananas comosus L. Merr. (Poales: Bromeliaceae)

  • State
  • Name
    Vera Raposo
  • Host entity
    cE3c – Centro de Ecologia, Evolução e Alterações Ambientais
  • University awarding the degree
    University of the Azores


  • To describe the population dynamic of the pineapple armoured scale.
  • To describe the life-history traits of the pineapple armoured scale under different biotic and abiotic conditions.
  • To describe the spatial dispersal pattern of the pineapple armoured scale.
  • To determine the economic injury level (EIL) and risk estimation of the pineapple armoured scale to the crop.
  • To characterize the Azorean guild of native natural enemies of pineapple armoured scale.
  • To evaluate the performance of the most promising native natural enemies, viewing an augmentative strategy, under single or multispecific releases.
  • To test and evaluate the long-term maintenance of sustainable populations of natural enemies in greenhouses.